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Also discussed is an alternative dimensional trait model for the conceptualization and classification of PDs, included within Section 3 (a Section for emerging models and measures) of DSM-5.

The trauma model of mental disorders, or trauma model of psychopathology, emphasizes the effects of psychological trauma, particularly in early development, as the key causal factor in the development of some or many psychiatric disorders, or a vulnerability for depression and anxiety, in addition to trauma as an adult as in post-traumatic stress disorder.

A passage of Interpretation of Schizophrenia, originally published in 1955, sheds light on the heart of the trauma model: First of all we have to repeat here what we already mentioned..., that conditions of obvious external danger, as in the case of wars, disasters, or other adversities that affect the collectivity, do not produce the type of anxiety that hurts the inner self and do not themselves favor schizophrenia.

Even extreme poverty, physical illness, or personal tragedies do not necessarily lead to schizophrenia unless they have psychological ramifications that hurt the sense of self.

They are often presented as a counterpoint to a psychiatry claimed to be too focused on genetics, neurochemistry and medication. They held that schizophrenia is induced by experiences in profoundly disturbed families or by attempts to cope with a damaging society.