The earliest history is preserved in the 5000-year-old ruins of a city at Mohenjo Daro, located Northeast of present-day Karachi in Pakistan.
Knowledge of the Hindu system spread through the Arab world, reaching the Arabs of the West in Spain before the end of the tenth century.
The earliest European manuscript, which came from the Hindu numerals were modified in north-Spain from the year 976.
And finally an important point for those who maintain that the concept of zero was also evident in some other civilisations: "Did you know that Vedic priests were using the so-called Pythagorean theorem to construct their fire altars in 800 BCE?
; that the differential equation for the sine function, infinite difference form, was described by Indian mathematician-astronomers in the fifth century CE?
The squiggles used for 4 to 9, however, are clear ancestors of the numbers we use today.