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The origins of the National Security Agency can be traced back to April 28, 1917, three weeks after the U. World War I ended on November 11, 1918, and the army cryptographic section of Military Intelligence (MI-8) moved to New York City on May 20, 1919, where it continued intelligence activities as the Code Compilation Company under the direction of Yardley. The Black Chamber was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization.

Jointly funded by the Army and the State Department, the Cipher Bureau was disguised as a New York City commercial code company; it actually produced and sold such codes for business use.

The NSA mounted a major effort to secure tactical communications among U. However a variety of technical and operational problems limited their use, allowing the North Vietnamese to exploit and intercept U. The White House asserted that the NSA interception had provided "irrefutable" evidence that Libya was behind the bombing, which U. President Ronald Reagan cited as a justification for the 1986 United States bombing of Libya.

NSA's infrastructure deteriorated in the 1990s as defense budget cuts resulted in maintenance deferrals.

On January 24, 2000, NSA headquarters suffered a total network outage for three days caused by an overloaded network.

This led to investigations by Congress and the NSA and Do D Inspectors General. It also included offensive cyber-warfare capabilities, like injecting malware into remote computers.

Congress criticized Turbulence in 2007 for having similar bureaucratic problems as Trailblazer.

The documents also revealed the NSA tracks hundreds of millions of people's movements using cellphones metadata. and was part of the war effort under the executive branch without direct Congressional authorization. At that point, the unit consisted of Yardley and two civilian clerks.